The formalization of constructivism from a within-the-human point of view is normally attributed to Jean Piaget, who articulated mechanisms by which facts from the environment and concepts from the person interact and result in internalized structures created by learners. Onuf 1989 could be considered the foundational text of constructivist IR theory, but it lacks the wide readership necessary to attain that level of prominence. Similarly, Bull 1995 (initially published in 1977) is a foundational text of the English School” and is arguably not a constructivist text at all. This book is on undergraduate and graduate syllabi across the globe, and along with Wendt 1999 (cited under Alexander Wendt ), played a significant role in situating constructivism as the third main theoretical paradigm.
Anarchy is What States Make of It: The Social Building of Energy Politics.” International Organization 46 (1992): 391-425. It differs from realism in that constructivism points out the meanings that underlie the material aspects of power. Williams 2004 hyperlinks constructivism to classical realism through the work of Hans J. Morgenthau. Perhaps his most critical function, Wendt 1999 , is the 1st significant attempt to mount a cohesive social theory of international politics. Globe of Our Making: Guidelines and Rule in Social Theory and International Relations.
Zehfuss 2002 offers an overview of key constructivist theorists and the differences amongst them. It is an excellent complement to Katzenstein 1996 Lebow 2008 is maybe the most substantial contribution to constructivist IR theory given that Katzenstein 1996 and Wendt 1999 (cited below Alexander Wendt ). In this lengthy work, Lebow examines motives and identity across a almost 4-thousand-year swath of planet history. Lapid and Kratochwil 1996 is an underutilized but important book that is an try to contextualize culture and identity in IR theory. For an explicitly constructivist take on identity, Katzenstein 1996 is probably the most extensively taught and extensively read operate on the topic.
Checkel 1998 reviews some major books from this period and offers a clear and readable, if not easy, overview of traditional constructivism. Guzzini and Leander 2006 presents a dialogue amongst Wendt and his (frequently constructivist) critics. Conventional constructivism differs from important constructivism in two main respects: (1) it is a systemic nonnormative theory and (2) the theory shares realism’s issues with material aspects of power.
In addition to the M.E. Sharpe volumes, Adler 1997 and Guzzini 2000 present article-length overviews of constructivism. This underestimation could be due to the difficult and interdisciplinary method of this work and of Onuf 1987 Berger and Luckmann 1991 is a operate of sociology significant for constructivism mainly because of its argument that objects and ideas are provided meaning by way of social interaction. Constructivism inside a Positivist Social Science.” Overview of International Research 25.1 (January 1999): 123-137.